博客> 第一个 说说CocoaPods
第一个 说说CocoaPods
2019-03-24 12:30 评论:0 阅读:669 superjunjun
ios cocoapods

工作将近三年。一直比较安逸,直到找工作的时候才发现以前浪费了大好时光。现在想想,工作中有时候遇到问题解决了就解决了,没有总结,没有自己的技术博客,过一段时间就会忘记,也会影响自己的职业生涯。话不多说,开始今天的内容。

CocoaPods是什么? CocoaPods是一个用Ruby写的、负责管理iOS项目中第三方开源库的工具,CocoaPods能让我们集中的、统一管理第三方开源库,为我们节省设置和更新第三方开源库的时间。

二.CocoaPods的安装 因为Mac电脑自带Ruby环境,我们就只需打开终端开始动手。

(1)、将Ruby 的软件源替换成国内的

ruby 的软件源( https://rubygems.org )使用的是亚马逊的云服务,所以自带的需要翻墙,但我们可以使用如下代码将官方的 ruby 源替换成国内淘宝的源(https://ruby.taobao.org/ )或者是由 Ruby China 社区专注维护的这个源(https://gems.ruby-china.org/ )。(我在镜像的时候开始用的是淘宝的,但会卡死,可能是不能用了,也可能是网速慢,在后面讲“坑”的时候会说)。在这我用的是Ruby China 社区专注维护的这个源(https://gems.ruby-china.org/)。

(注意:复制别人的命令时不要将$也复制,终端是一直自动带着的)

*首先,执行以下命令删除原来的ruby源:

gem sources --remove https://rubygems.org/ 执行命令后可在终端看见以下信息:

https://rubygems.org/ removed from sources *然后下一步添加你找到的可用的镜像源(这里我没有用淘宝的源:https://ruby.taobao.org/ ):

gem sources -a https://gems.ruby-china.org/ *验证新源是否替换成功

gem sources -l 终端输出:

CURRENT SOURCES https://gems.ruby-china.org/ 到此ruby 源替已经换成国内的源

(2)、开始安装 CocoaPods

其实就是执行sudo gem install cocoapods命令这么简单,但这一步是最容易出现坑的。

=========可能出现的状况(坑)=========

问题一:While executing gem ... (Errno::EPERM) Operation not permitted - /usr/bin/fuzzy_match 错误 解决方案 : 执行sudo gem install -n /usr/local/bin cocoapods 语句。然后提示gems installed即可。 问题二:Error installing pods:active support requires Ruby version >= 2.2.2 解决方案 : 查看ruby版本

$ruby -v 终端会输出你的ruby 版本信息

查看目前的所有ruby版本:

$rvm list known 如果提示command not found 请先安装rvm

$curl -L get.rvm.io | bash -s stable 如果已安装会列出所有的ruby版本:

MRI Rubies [ruby-]1.8.6[-p420] [ruby-]1.8.7[-head] # security released on head [ruby-]1.9.1[-p431] [ruby-]1.9.2[-p330] [ruby-]1.9.3[-p551] [ruby-]2.0.0[-p648] [ruby-]2.1[.8] [ruby-]2.2[.4] [ruby-]2.3[.0] [ruby-]2.2-head ruby-head ...... 安装2.2.2:

$rvm install 2.2.2 终端运行结果:(如果直接成功请绕过homebrew的卸载安装)

Searching for binary rubies, this might take some time. Found remote file https://rvm_io.global.ssl.fastly.net/binaries/osx/10.11/x86_64/ruby-2.2.2.tar.bz2 Checking requirements for osx. About to install Homebrew, press Enter for default installation in /usr/local, type new path if you wish custom Homebrew installation (the path needs to be writable for user) : 回车:

It appears Homebrew is already installed. If your intent is to reinstall you should do the following before running this installer again: ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL
"The current contents of /usr/local are .git Requirements installation failed with status: 1. 出现Requirements installation failed with status: 1.时才执行:

$ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/uninstall)" 卸载home-brew

Warning: This script will remove:/Library/Caches/Homebrew//usr/local/.git/ Are you sure you want to uninstall Homebrew? [y/N] y ==> Removing Homebrew installation... ==> Removing empty directories... ==> Homebrew uninstalled! You may want to restore /usr/local's original permissions sudo chmod 0755 /usr/local sudo chgrp wheel /usr/local 再执行:

$ rvm install 2.2.2 提示:

Searching for binary rubies, this might take some time. Found remote file https://rvm_io.global.ssl.fastly.net/binaries/osx/10.11/x86_64/ruby-2.2.2.tar.bz2 Checking requirements for osx. About to install Homebrew, press Enter for default installation in /usr/local, type new path if you wish custom Homebrew installation (the path needs to be writable for user): 按回车:

==> This script will install: /usr/local/bin/brew /usr/local/Library/... /usr/local/share/doc/homebrew /usr/local/share/man/man1/brew.1/usr/local/share/zsh/site-functions/_brew /usr/local/etc/bash_completion.d/brew

Press RETURN to continue or any other key to abort ==> /usr/bin/sudo /bin/mkdir /Library/Caches/Homebrew Password: 这里需要输入电脑密码:

==> /usr/bin/sudo /bin/chmod g+rwx /Library/Caches/Homebrew ==> /usr/bin/sudo /usr/sbin/chown haha /Library/Caches/Homebrew ==> Downloading and installing Homebrew... remote: Counting objects: 501, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (445/445), done. remote: Total 501 (delta 29), reused 360 (delta 27), pack-reused 0 Receiving objects: 100% (501/501), 787.83 KiB | 169.00 KiB/s, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (29/29), done. From https://github.com/Homebrew/brew

  • [new branch] master -> origin/master HEAD is now at 32f7e73 download_strategy: ensure fixed commit hash length ==> Tapping homebrew/core Cloning into '/usr/local/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-core'... remote: Counting objects: 3714, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (3598/3598), done. remote: Total 3714 (delta 14), reused 2112 (delta 6), pack-reused 0 Receiving objects: 100% (3714/3714), 2.88 MiB | 240.00 KiB/s, done. Resolving deltas: 100% (14/14), done. Checking connectivity... done. Checking out files: 100% (3717/3717), done. Tapped 3591 formulae (3,740 files, 9.0M) ==> Installation successful! ==> Next steps Run brew help to get started Further documentation: https://git.io/brew-docs ==> Homebrew has enabled anonymous aggregate user behaviour analytics Read the analytics documentation (and how to opt-out) here: https://git.io/brew-analytics Installing requirements for osx. Updating system..... Installing required packages: autoconf, automake, libtool, pkg-config, libyaml, readline, libksba, openssl........ Certificates in '/usr/local/etc/openssl/cert.pem' are already up to date. Requirements installation successful. ruby-2.2.2 - #configure ruby-2.2.2 - #download % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 6854k 100 6854k 0 0 61342 0 0:01:54 0:01:54 --:--:-- 132k ruby-2.2.2 - #validate archive ruby-2.2.2 - #extract ruby-2.2.2 - #validate binary ruby-2.2.2 - #setup ruby-2.2.2 - #gemset created /Users/haha/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.2.2@global ruby-2.2.2 - #importing gemset /Users/haha/.rvm/gemsets/global.gems.............................. ruby-2.2.2 - #generating global wrappers........ ruby-2.2.2 - #gemset created /Users/haha/.rvm/gems/ruby-2.2.2 ruby-2.2.2 - #importing gemsetfile /Users/haha/.rvm/gemsets/default.gems evaluated to empty gem list ruby-2.2.2 - #generating default wrappers........ Updating certificates in '/etc/openssl/cert.pem'. mkdir: /etc/openssl: Permission denied mkdir -p "/etc/openssl" failed, retrying with sudo haha password required for 'mkdir -p /etc/openssl': and sudo mkdir worked 至此ruby2.2.2就安装好了,也可以直接安装更高的版本,只需将版本号修改一下 然后我们继续sudo gem install cocoapods

问题三、Setting up CocoaPods master repo 卡着不动 出现Setting up CocoaPods master repo,说明Cocoapods正在将它的信息下载到 ~/.cocoapods里;(这一步是很费时间的,等输出Setup completed 安装完成啦) 在此过程中可以右击终端选 --->新建窗口;在新建的终端窗口输入:

cd ~/.cocoapods 进入cocoa pods文件,然后在终端输入:

du -sh * 即可查看下载的文件大小。也就可以知道是网速不好,还是源不可用了。

解决方案 : 1、第一次我用淘宝的https://ruby.taobao.org/ 替换自带的软件源,du -sh *查看下载的文件大小,一直不变(不知道是网速的原因,还是淘宝这个源不可用)。然后我就换到这个源https://gems.ruby-china.org/ 。重新搞了一遍。它的下载速度还是蛮快的,文件大约是800多兆。

2、也可以使用cocoapods的镜像索引. 所有项目的Podspec文件都托管在https://github.com/CocoaPods/Specs ,第一次执行pod setup时,CocoaPods会将这些podspec索引文件更新到本地的~/.cocoapods目录下,这个索引文件比较大,所以第一次更新时非常慢.友好人士在国内的服务器建立了Cocoapods索引库的镜像,所以执行索引跟新操作时候会快很多.具体操作方法如下: $ pod repo remove master $ git clone https://github.com/CocoaPods/Specs.git ~/.cocoapods/repos/master $ pod repo update 这是使用gitcafe上的镜像,将以上代码中的 https://gitcafe.com/akuandev/Specs.git 替换成 https://git.oschina.net/akuandev/Specs.git 即可使用oschina上的镜像。

问题四、出现如下 [!] An error occurred while performing git pull on repo master. [!] /usr/bin/git pull --ff-only 原因: Cocoapods的分支不支持当前最新的Xcode版本

解决办法: 删除master分支 重新建立新的分支 sudo rm -fr ~/.cocoapods/repos/master 然后再: pod setup

第五个问题是在别人的博客中看到的

问题五:解决升级EI Capiton CocoaPods "pod: command not found" 升级OS X EI Capiton之后,发现CocoaPods的pod无效了,运行pod后显示:"pod: command not found"的错误。

解决步骤: 1.为了安全起见,执行命令"sudo gem uninstall cocoapods",卸载原有的CocoaPod 2.执行命令"sudo gem install -n /usr/local/bin cocoapods"来重新安装cocoapod 3.如果没有权限执行pod,执行命令"sudo chmod +rx /usr/local/bin/",赋予/usr/local/bin给予执行与读取权限 原文链接:http://www.jianshu.com/p/6ff1903c3f11

三、CocoaPods的使用 (1)查找第三方库

pod search AFNetworking (2)、创建Podfile文件 在终端使用cd +路径切换到项目所在文件下,然后输入:

touch Podfile 就可以在项目目录里看到Podfile文件。也可以使用

pod init 来创建, 打开Podfile文件:

open Podfile 然后 pod install就可以了

(3)、 删除已经配置的类库和移除CocoaPods 可以去查看http://www.jianshu.com/p/552f21a989ba?utm_source=tuicool&utm_medium=referral 这篇文章。

pod install与pod update区别:

1.使用pod install来安装新的库,即使你的工程里面已经有了Podfile,并且已经执行过pod install命令了;所以即使你是添加或移除库,都应该使用pod install。 2.使用pod update [PODNAME] 只有在你需要更新库到更新的版本时候用。

小技巧:

最近使用CocoaPods来添加第三方类库,无论是执行pod install还是pod update都卡在了Analyzing dependencies不动原因在于当执行以上两个命令的时候会升级CocoaPods的spec仓库,加一个参数可以省略这一步,然后速度就会提升不少。加参数的命令如下:

pod install --verbose --no-repo-updatepod update --verbose --no-repo-update 参考资料:http://blog.csdn.net/u012960049/article/details/52275272 http://blog.devtang.com/2014/05/25/use-cocoapod-to-manage-ios-lib-dependency/

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